Visuddhimagga I-1

Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa



(Paṭhamo bhāgo)


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Sīlepatiṭṭhāya naro sapañño, cittaṃ paññañca bhāvayaṃ;

Ātāpī nipako bhikkhu, so imaṃ vijaṭaye jaṭanti. (saṃ. ni. 1.23);

[PTS 001] 经中这样说:



Ñ(I,1): [1] 'When a wise man, established well in Virtue,

Develops Consciousness and Understanding,

Then as a bhikkhu ardent and sagacious,

He succeeds in disentangling this tangle' (S.i,13).


patiṭṭhāya : [abs. of patiṭṭhāti] having established; having stood firmly; having found a support.

patiṭṭhāti : [pati + ṭhā + a] is established; stands firmly; finds a support.

nara : [m.] man; a human being.

bhāveti : [bhū+ e] increases; cultivates; develops.

ātāpī (adj.), ardent; strenuous.

nipaka : [adj.] clever; prudent; wise.

so : [(nom. sin. of ta), m.] he.

vijaṭeti : [vi + jaṭ + e] unravels; combs out; disentangles.

jaṭā (f.) tangle; planting; matted hair.

Iti hidaṃ vuttaṃ, kasmā panetaṃ vuttaṃ, bhagavantaṃ kira sāvatthiyaṃ viharantaṃ rattibhāge aññataro devaputto upasaṅkamitvā attano saṃsayasamugghāṭatthaṃ –

Antojaṭā bahijaṭā, jaṭāya jaṭitā pajā;

Taṃ taṃ gotama pucchāmi, ko imaṃ vijaṭaye jaṭanti. (saṃ. ni. 1.23) –

Imaṃ pañhaṃ pucchi.



瞿昙[qú tán]我问汝,谁当解此结?

Ñ: This was said. But why was it said? While the Blessed One was living at Sāvatthi, it seems, a certain deity came to him in the night, and in order to do away with his doubts he asked this question:

'The inner tangle and the outer tangle -

This generation is entangled in a tangle.

And so I ask of Gotama this question:

Who succeeds in disentangling this tangle?' (S.i,13).


iti : [ind.] thus. (used to point out something just mentioned or about to be mentioned, and to show that a sentence is finished). Very often its former i is elided and ti only is remaining.

vutta : [pp. of vadati] spoken; said; told.

vadati : [vad + a] speaks; says; tells.

kasmā : [ind.] why.

pana : [(Adversative and interogative particle) ind.] and; yet; but; out the contrary; and now; more over.

kira : [ind.] really; truly; (refers to a report by hear-say).

sāvatthī : [f.] name of the metropolis of the Kingdom of Kosala.

viharanta : [pr.p. of viharati] living ; abiding; dwelling; sojourning.

viharati : [vi + har + a] lives; abides; dwells; sojourns.

rattibhāga : [m.] night-time.

aññatara : [adj.] certain; not well-known.

devaputta : [m.] son of a god.

upasaṅkamitvā : [abs. of upasaṅkamati] having approached; drawing near.

upasaṅkamati : [upa + saṃ + kam + a] approaches.

atta : [m.] soul; oneself.

saṃsaya : [m.] doubt.

samugghāta : [m.] jostling; knocking against; uprooting; removal.

samugghāteti : [saṃ + u + ghāt + e] abolishes; uproots; removes.

anto : [ind.] inside; within; inner.

bahi : [ind.] outer; external; outside.

jaṭā (f.) tangle; planting; matted hair.

jaṭita : [pp.] entangled; plaited.

pajā : [f.] progeny; offspring; generation; mankind.

pucchā (f.) a question.

ko : [m.] (sing. of kiṃ) who? which man?

pañha : [3] a question; an inquiry.

pucchi : [aor. of pucchati] asked; questioned.

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Acknowledgment: Thanks to Buddhist Publication Society (BPS) and Venerable Nyanatusita for allowing me to use the English translation of the Visuddhimagga (The Path Of Purification) by Bhadantācariya Buddhaghosa, translated from the Pāḷi by Bhikkhu Ñāṇamoli, as part of a combined Chinese English translation.

Sādhu ! Sādhu ! Sādhu !