Visuddhimagga XVI-16

530. Nibbacanalakkhaṇādippabhedatoti ettha pana nibbacanato tāva idha du-iti ayaṃ saddo kucchite dissati.
Ñ(XVI,16): 2. As to derivation, 3. division by character, et cetera: here, however, firstly 'as to derivation' [of the word dukkha (suffering):] the word du ('bad') is met with in the sense of vile (kucchita);

Kucchitaṃ hi puttaṃ dupputtoti vadanti.
Ñ: for they call a vile child a du-putta ('bad child').

Khaṃ-saddo pana tucche.
Ñ: The word kham ('-ness'), however is met with in the sense of empty (tuccha),

Tucchaṃ hi ākāsaṃ ‘‘kha’’nti vuccati.
Ñ: for they call empty space ikham'.

Idañca paṭhamasaccaṃ kucchitaṃ anekaupaddavādhiṭṭhānato.
Ñ: And the first truth is vile because it is the haunt of many dangers,

Tucchaṃ bālajanaparikappitadhuvasubhasukhattabhāvavirahitato.
Ñ: and it is empty because it is devoid of the lastingness, beauty, pleasure, and self conceived by rash people.

Tasmā kucchitattā tucchattā ca dukkhanti vuccati.
Ñ: So it is called dukkhaṃ ('badness' = suffering, pain), because of vileness and emptiness. [495]

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Acknowledgment: Thanks to Buddhist Publication Society (BPS) and Venerable Nyanatusita for allowing me to use the English translation of the Visuddhimagga (The Path Of Purification) by Bhadantācariya Buddhaghosa, translated from the Pāḷi by Bhikkhu Ñāṇamoli, as part of a combined Chinese English translation.

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