Visuddhimagga I-33

12. Tikesu paṭhamattike hīnena chandena cittena vīriyena vīmaṃsāya vā pavattitaṃ hīnaṃ.

(三)(三法)于三法中: (1)(下、中、上)先说第一种三法:如果由下等的欲、心、精进、观(四神足)所建立的戒为「下」;

Ñ(I,33): 9. In the first of the triads the inferior is produced by inferior zeal, [purity of] consciousness, energy, or inquiry;

Sayādaw U Sīlānanda: [purity of].

Han: Yes, please delete [purity of].

Majjhimehi chandādīhi pavattitaṃ majjhimaṃ.


Ñ: the medium is produced by medium zeal, etc.;

Paṇītehi paṇītaṃ.


Ñ: the superior, by superior (zeal, and so on).

Yasakāmatāya vā samādinnaṃ hīnaṃ.


Ñ: That undertaken out of desire for fame is inferior;

Puññaphalakāmatāya majjhimaṃ.


Ñ: that undertaken out of desire for the fruits of merit is medium;

Kattabbamevidanti ariyabhāvaṃ nissāya samādinnaṃ paṇītaṃ.


Ñ: that undertaken for the sake of the noble state thus 'This has to be done' is superior.

‘‘Ahamasmi sīlasampanno, ime panaññe bhikkhū dussīlā pāpadhammā’’ti evaṃ attukkaṃsanaparavambhanādīhi upakkiliṭṭhaṃ vā hīnaṃ.


Ñ: Or again, that defiled by self-praise and disparagement of others, etc., thus, 'I am possessed of virtue, but these other bhikkhus are ill-conducted and evil-natured' (M.i,193), is inferior,

Anupakkiliṭṭhaṃ lokiyaṃ sīlaṃ majjhimaṃ.


Ñ: undefiled mundane virtue is medium;

Lokuttaraṃ paṇītaṃ.


Ñ: supramundane is superior.

Taṇhāvasena vā bhavabhogatthāya pavattitaṃ hīnaṃ.


Ñ: Or again, that motivated by craving, the purpose of which is to enjoy continued existence, is inferior;

Attano vimokkhatthāya pavattitaṃ majjhimaṃ.


Ñ: that practised for the purpose of one's own deliverance is medium;

Sabbasattānaṃ vimokkhatthāya pavattitaṃ pāramitāsīlaṃ paṇītanti evaṃ hīnamajjhimapaṇītavasena tividhaṃ.


Ñ: the virtue of the perfections practised for the deliverance of all beings is superior. So it is of three kinds as inferior, medium, and superior.

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Acknowledgment: Thanks to Buddhist Publication Society (BPS) and Venerable Nyanatusita for allowing me to use the English translation of the Visuddhimagga (The Path Of Purification) by Bhadantācariya Buddhaghosa, translated from the Pāḷi by Bhikkhu Ñāṇamoli, as part of a combined Chinese English translation.

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