Visuddhimagga I-66

17. Imissā pana pāḷiyā evamattho veditabbo.


Ñ(I,66): The meaning of this text should be understood as follows:

Dic: pana : [(Adversative and interogative particle) ind.] and; yet; but; out the contrary; and now; more over.

veditabba : [pt.p. of] should be known.

vedeti : [vid + e] feels; senses; knows.

Kuhananiddese tāva lābhasakkārasilokasannissitassāti lābhañca sakkārañca kittisaddañca sannissitassa, patthayantassāti attho.


Ñ: Firstly, as regards description of scheming: on the part of one bent on gain, honour and renown is on the part of one who is bent on gain, on honour, and on reputation; on the part of one who longs for them, is the meaning.

Dic: niddesa : [m.] description; analytic explanation.

patthayati : [pa + atth + aya] wishes for; desires; aspires.

patthayanta : [pr.p. of patthayati] wishing for; desiring; aspiring.

Han: The Burmese translation on this definition is as follows:

[lābhasakkārasilokasannissitassāti] means (attho) on the part of the one who is bent on (sannissitassa) -
(i) ordinary gains such as robes and other ordinary materials (lābhañca);
(ii) special materials or specially prepared goods (sakkārañca),
(iii) reputation (kittisaddañca)
with the desire [and craving taṇhā] (patthayantassāti)

Han: I think the English translation of sakkāra is more accurate than the Burmese translation.
In the Burmese translation, the author puts the word taṇhā in square brackets together with patthayantassāti.

Pāpicchassāti asantaguṇadīpanakāmassa.

[PTS 024]「恶欲者」,是无道德而欲示其有道德者。

Ñ: [24] Of one of evil wishes: of one who wants to show qualities that he has not got.

Dic: asanta : [adj.] non-existing; the wicked.

guṇa : [m.] virtue; quality; a cord or string; a bow-string; (with numerals: diguṇa = twofold).

dīpanā : [f.] illustration; explanation.

Han: Pāpicchassāti asanta guṇa dīpanakāmassa.

In Pāḷi-English Dictionary you can find only dīpana. In Pāḷi-Burmese Dictionary there is another word dīpanakāma which means exactly what Ven Ñāṇamoli had used: *wants to show*.

Ñ: [24] Of one of evil wishes (pāpicchassāti): of one who *wants to show* (dīpanakāma) qualities (guṇa) that he has not got (asanta).

Icchāpakatassāti icchāya apakatassa, upaddutassāti attho.


Ñ: A prey to wishes: the meaning is, of one who is attacked by them.

Dic: upadduta : [pp. of upaddaveti] annoyed; troubled.

upaddaveti : [upa + dav + e] annoys; troubles.

Han: Burmese translation: oppressed by desire (icchāpakatassāti): the meaning (attho) is, of one in whom [right livelihood] is done away with (apakata) and oppressed and troubled (upadduta) by desires (icchā).

Dic: apakata: [pp. of apakaroti] put off; done away.
Dic: upadduta: [pp. of upaddaveti] annoyed; troubled.

Explanation given: The desires are unprofitable in the sense that they do away with the right livelihood. When the desires are unprofitable and preventing the right livelihood, it is, in a way, afflicting or oppressing the person. That is why upadduta is added to emphasize the afflicting or oppressing nature of the desires.

Han: It may be rather confusing. Kindly refer to the Chinese translation also.

Chew: The Chinese translation for [Icchāpakatassāti icchāya apakatassa, upaddutassāti attho] is:

[Defeated by desire: the meaning is, of one who is defeated by desire and being conquered.]

Ito paraṃ yasmā paccayapaṭisevanasāmantajappanairiyāpathasannissitavasena mahāniddese tividhaṃ kuhanavatthu āgataṃ. Tasmā tividhampetaṃ dassetuṃ paccayapaṭisevanasaṅkhātena vāti evamādi āraddhaṃ.

此后的拒绝资具(paccayapaṭisedhana; 以资具受用 paccayapaṭisevana)、迂回之说、假肃威仪的三种诡诈之事,因为是来自《大义释(mahāniddese)》,所以现在来显示此三事也用所谓拒绝资具等开始而加以说明。

Ñ: And after this the passage beginning or by what is called rejection of requisites is given in order to show the three instances of scheming given in the Mahā-Niddesa as rejection of requisites(paccayapaṭisedhana), indirect talk, and that based on deportment.

Han: There are three instances of scheming (kuhanavatthu). They are:
(1) paccayapaṭisevana = using requisites (Dic: meaning).
(2) sāmantajappana = indirect talk.
(3) iriyāpathasannissita = based on deportment.

paccaya: [m.] cause; votive; requisite; means; support.
paṭisevana: [nt.] practising; using; following.
sāmanta-jappā: indirect talk.
iriyāpatha: deportment.
sannissita: based on, connected with, attached to.

Now, the difficulty is the English translation of paccayapaṭisevana is "rejection of requisites", whereas, the Dictionary meaning is "using of requisites".

The gist of Burmese translation of the whole paragraph is as follows.
When the followers offer the monk robes and other commodities, the monk rejects them, saying that he does not need them. Actually, he wants them. It is only a ploy, so that the followers have more saddha and offer the monk more commodities. So, it is true that one of the instances of kuhana is rejection of requisites. But the Pāḷi word "paccayapaṭisevana" does not say rejection. I do not know how to understand the first sentence.

You have highlighted the words "based on deportment". That means the monk purposely walks, stands, sits and lies down (iriyāpatha) according to the rules, just to impress the followers, so that the followers will have more saddha towards him.

Chew: In Ñ's footnote: The rendering 'rejection of requisites' takes the preferable reading paṭisedhana though the common reading here is paṭisevana (cultivation).

In Chinese version's footnote: The word "rejection of requisites" (paccayapaṭisedhana) is translated from the Sinhalese version; according to Pāḷi-text society version, "using of requisites" (paccayapaṭisevana) is used. Based on the explanation in the content, it is better to apply "rejection of requisites" (paccayapaṭisedhana).

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Acknowledgment: Thanks to Buddhist Publication Society (BPS) and Venerable Nyanatusita for allowing me to use the English translation of the Visuddhimagga (The Path Of Purification) by Bhadantācariya Buddhaghosa, translated from the Pāḷi by Bhikkhu Ñāṇamoli, as part of a combined Chinese English translation.

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