Visuddhimagga V-26

Idha uggahanimittaṃ saddhiṃ bhittipariyantādīhi chiddasadisameva hoti, vaḍḍhiyamānampi na vaḍḍhati.


Ñ(V,26): Here the learning sign resembles the hole together with the wall, etc., that surrounds it. Attempts to extend it fail.

Paṭibhāganimittamākāsamaṇḍalameva hutvā upaṭṭhāti, vaḍḍhiyamānañca vaḍḍhati.


Ñ: The counterpart sign appears only as a circle of space. Attempts to extend it succeed.

Sesaṃ pathavīkasiṇe vuttanayeneva veditabbanti.


Ñ: The rest should be understood as described under the earth kasiṇa.

Ñ's notes: In the Suttas the first eight kasiṇas are the same as those given here, and they are the only ones mentioned in the Dhammasaṅgaṇī (§160-203) and Paṭisambhidā (Ps.i,6). The Suttas give space and consciousness as ninth and tenth respectively (M.ii,14-15; D.iii,268; Netti 89, etc.). But these last two appear to coincide with the first two immaterial states, that is, boundless space and boundless consciousness. The light kasiṇa given here as ninth does not appear in the Suttas. It is perhaps a development from the 'perception of light' (āloka-saññā) (A.ii,45). The limited-space kasiṇa given here as tenth has perhaps been made 'limited' in order to differentiate it from the first immaterial state. The commentary on the consciousness kasiṇa (MA.iii,261) says nothing on this aspect. As to space, Pm. (p. 373) says: 'The attainment of the immaterial states is not produced by means of the space kasiṇa, and with the words "ending with the white kasiṇa" (Ch. XXI, §2) the light kasiṇa is included in the white kasiṇa'. For description of space (ākāsa) see DhsA. 325, Netti 29. Also Pm. (p. 393) defines space thus: 'Wherever there is no obstruction, that is called space'. Again the Majjhima-nikaya Ṭikā (commenting on M. Sutta 106) remarks: '[Sense desires] are not called empty (ritta) in the sense that space, which is entirely devoid of individual essence, is called empty'.


Ñ: The limited-space kasiṇa.

Chew: 「限定虚空遍」.

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Acknowledgment: Thanks to Buddhist Publication Society (BPS) and Venerable Nyanatusita for allowing me to use the English translation of the Visuddhimagga (The Path Of Purification) by Bhadantācariya Buddhaghosa, translated from the Pāḷi by Bhikkhu Ñāṇamoli, as part of a combined Chinese English translation.

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