Visuddhimagga IX-54

Pāṇanatāya pāṇā, assāsapassāsāyattavuttitāyāti attho.


Ñ(IX,54): Breathing things (pāṇa): so called because of their state of breathing (pāṇanatā); the meaning is, because their existence depends on in-breaths and out-breaths.

Bhūtattā bhūtā, saṃbhūtattā abhinibbattattāti attho.


Ñ: Creatures (bhūta): so called because of being (bhūtatta = becomeness); the meaning is, because of their being fully become (sambhūtatta), because of their being generated (abhinibbattatta).

Punti vuccati nirayo. Tasmiṃ galantīti puggalā, gacchantīti attho.


Ñ: Persons (puggalā): 'pum' is what hell is called; they fall (galanti) into that, is the meaning.

Attabhāvo vuccati sarīraṃ. Khandhapañcakameva vā, tamupādāya paññattimattasambhavato.


Ñ: Personality (attabhāva) is what the physical body is called; or it is just the pentad of aggregates, since it is actually only a concept derived from that pentad of aggregates.

Tasmiṃ attabhāve pariyāpannāti attabhāvapariyāpannā.


[What is referred to is] included (pariyāpanna) in that personality, thus it 'has a personality' (attabhāva-pariyāpanna).

Pariyāpannāti paricchinnā, antogadhāti attho.


Ñ: 'Included in' is delimited by; 'gone into' is the meaning.

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Acknowledgment: Thanks to Buddhist Publication Society (BPS) and Venerable Nyanatusita for allowing me to use the English translation of the Visuddhimagga (The Path Of Purification) by Bhadantācariya Buddhaghosa, translated from the Pāḷi by Bhikkhu Ñāṇamoli, as part of a combined Chinese English translation.

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