Visuddhimagga XI-33

Kakkhaḷanti thaddhaṃ.


Ñ(XI,33): Hard: rigid.

Kharigatanti pharusaṃ.


Ñ: Harsh: rough.

Tattha paṭhamaṃ lakkhaṇavacanaṃ,


Ñ: Herein, the first is a word for the characteristic,

dutiyaṃ ākāravacanaṃ,


Ñ: while the second is a word for the mode;

kakkhaḷalakkhaṇā hi pathavīdhātu,


Ñ: for the earth element is characterized as hard,

sā pharusākārā hoti,


Ñ: but its mode is rough,

tasmā kharigatanti vuttā.


Ñ: which is why it is called 'harsh'.

Upādinnanti daḷhaṃ ādinnaṃ, ahaṃ mamanti evaṃ daḷhaṃ ādinnaṃ, gahitaṃ parāmaṭṭhanti attho.


Ñ: Clung to: taken firmly [by kamma]; the meaning is, firmly taken, seized, adhered to, as 'I', 'mine' (see §89f.).

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Acknowledgment: Thanks to Buddhist Publication Society (BPS) and Venerable Nyanatusita for allowing me to use the English translation of the Visuddhimagga (The Path Of Purification) by Bhadantācariya Buddhaghosa, translated from the Pāḷi by Bhikkhu Ñāṇamoli, as part of a combined Chinese English translation.

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