Visuddhimagga III-20

Dutiyacatukke atthi samādhi paritto parittārammaṇo, atthi paritto appamāṇārammaṇo, atthi appamāṇo parittārammaṇo, atthi appamāṇo appamāṇārammaṇoti.


Ñ(III,20): 11. In the second tetrad there is limited concentration with a limited object, there is limited with a measureless object, there is measureless with a limited object, and there is measureless with a measureless object.

Tattha yo samādhi appaguṇo uparijhānassa paccayo bhavituṃ na sakkoti, ayaṃ paritto.

此中对于那定不熟习,而不能为到达上禅之缘者,这是 [PTS 088]「小定」,

Ñ: Herein, concentration that is unfamiliar and incapable of being a condition for a higher jhāna [88] is limited.

Chew: The unfamiliarity of any of the 40 meditation subjects is called limited. And some of the 40 meditation subjects, which cannot be developed to a higher Jhāna (e.g. Buddhānussati only up to upacārabhāvanā), also are called limited. Am I right?

Yo pana avaḍḍhite ārammaṇe pavatto, ayaṃ parittārammaṇo.


Ñ: When it occurs with an unextended object (Ch. IV, §126), it is with a limited object.

Chew: As Ñ(III,109) “only the ten kasiṇas among these forty meditation subjects need be extended.” So, the object for the remaining meditation subjects are called unextended object. Am I right?

Han: Mahāsī Sayādaw did not give such explanation, but I study the text carefully, and I agree with your comments.

Yo paguṇo subhāvito, uparijhānassa paccayo bhavituṃ sakkoti, ayaṃ appamāṇo.


Ñ: When it is familiar, well developed, and capable of being a condition for a higher jhāna, it is measureless.

Yo ca vaḍḍhite ārammaṇe pavatto, ayaṃ appamāṇārammaṇo.


Ñ: And when it occurs with an extended object, it is with a measureless object.

Vuttalakkhaṇavomissatāya pana vomissakanayo veditabbo.


Ñ: The mixed method can be understood as the mixture of the characteristics already stated.

Evaṃ parittaparittārammaṇādivasena catubbidho.


Ñ: So it is of four kinds as limited with limited object, and so on.

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Acknowledgment: Thanks to Buddhist Publication Society (BPS) and Venerable Nyanatusita for allowing me to use the English translation of the Visuddhimagga (The Path Of Purification) by Bhadantācariya Buddhaghosa, translated from the Pāḷi by Bhikkhu Ñāṇamoli, as part of a combined Chinese English translation.

Sādhu ! Sādhu ! Sādhu !