Visuddhimagga I-151

Akhaṇḍādibhāvo pana sabbaso sikkhāpadānaṃ abhedena, bhinnānañca sappaṭikammānaṃ paṭikammakaraṇena, sattavidhamethunasaṃyogābhāvena ca, aparāya ca ‘‘kodho upanāho makkho paḷāso issā macchariyaṃ māyā sātheyyaṃ thambho sārambho māno atimāno mado pamādo’’tiādīnaṃ pāpadhammānaṃ anuppattiyā, appicchatāsantuṭṭhitāsallekhatādīnañca guṇānaṃ uppattiyā saṅgahito.


Ñ(151): Untornness, however, is accomplished by the complete non-breaking of the training precepts, by making amends for those broken for which amends should be made, by the absence of the seven bonds of sexuality, and, as well, by the non-arising of such evil things as anger, enmity, contempt, domineering, envy, avarice, deceit, fraud, obduracy[ˈɔbdjurəsi,ɔbˈdju:rəs], presumption, pride (conceit), haughtiness, conceit (vanity), and negligence (see M. Sutta 7), and by the arising of such qualities as fewness of wishes, contentment, and effacement (see M. Sutta 24).

Chew: What is the different between “deceit(māyā)” and “fraud(sātheyyaṃ)”?

Han: They are similar. In Burmese language, we combine the two and say “māyā-sātheyya”

māyā = deceit, dishonest.

sātheyya = fraud, a person who claims to be what he is not.

Chew: What is the different between “obduracy(thambho)” and “presumption(sārambho)”?


thambho = stubborn, very strong-will (in a negative sense).

sārambho = improper boldness with too high an opinion of oneself, and dominates others.

Chew: These 6 types of dhamma, i.e. 1. contempt(makkho), 2. obduracy(thambho), 3. presumption(sārambho), 4. pride (conceit)(māno), 5. haughtiness(atimāno), and 6. conceit (vanity)(mado), look similar. Can you differentiate them?

Han: thambho and sārambho already explained.

makkho = destroys a person who has been good and kind to him (ungrateful).

māna = conceit.

atimāna = strong conceit, arrogance.

mado = pride, intoxication (e.g. intoxicated with youthfulness = yobbana-mado).

Chew: These 5 are dosa group: anger, enmity, contempt(makkho), domineering(paḷāso), envy(issā), avarice(macchariyaṃ).

Han: Yes.

Chew: These 8 are lobha group: deceit(māyā), fraud(sātheyyaṃ), obduracy(thambho), presumption(sārambho), pride (conceit)(māno), haughtiness(atimāno), conceit (vanity)(mado), and negligence(pamādo). Am I right?

Han: I am not sure of this grouping. Maybe, Nina can tell us.

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Acknowledgment: Thanks to Buddhist Publication Society (BPS) and Venerable Nyanatusita for allowing me to use the English translation of the Visuddhimagga (The Path Of Purification) by Bhadantācariya Buddhaghosa, translated from the Pāḷi by Bhikkhu Ñāṇamoli, as part of a combined Chinese English translation.

Sādhu ! Sādhu ! Sādhu !