Visuddhimagga I-154

Apica dussīlo puggalo dussīlyahetu amanāpo hoti devamanussānaṃ, ananusāsanīyo sabrahmacārīnaṃ, dukkhito dussīlyagarahāsu, vippaṭisārī sīlavataṃ pasaṃsāsu, tāya ca pana dussīlyatāya sāṇasāṭako viya dubbaṇṇo hoti.


Ñ(I,154): Furthermore, on account of his unvirtuousness an unvirtuous person is displeasing to deities and human beings, is uninstructable by his fellows in the life of purity, suffers when unvirtuousness is censured, and is remorseful when the virtuous are praised. Owing to that unvirtuousness he is as ugly as hemp cloth.

Ye kho panassa diṭṭhānugatiṃ āpajjanti, tesaṃ dīgharattaṃ apāyadukkhāvahanato dukkhasamphasso.


Ñ: Contact with him is painful because those who fall in with his views are brought to long-lasting suffering in the states of loss.

Sayādaw U Sīlānanda: [his views => what he sees / imitating him].

Chew: The translation seems not very smooth "Contact with him is painful because those ... in the states of loss."

Han: [Contact with him is painful because those who imitate his views are brought to long-lasting suffering in the states of loss.]

It must be understood that the unvirtuous person is compared with the hemp cloth.

The hemp cloth (1) is ugly, (2) has rough surface causing unpleasant feeling when comes into contact with it, (3) is worthless. So also, (1) the unvirtuous person is ugly because on account of his unvirtuousness he is displeasing to deities etc., (2) it is painful to come into contact with him because those who come in contact with him may imitate him, (3) he is useless because he will not bring about beneficial fruit [to accrue] to those who give him gifts.

Yesaṃ deyyadhammaṃ paṭiggaṇhāti, tesaṃ namahapphalakaraṇato appaggho.


Ñ: He is worthless because he causes no great fruit [to accrue] to those who give him gifts.

Anekavassagaṇikagūthakūpo viya dubbisodhano. Chavālātamiva ubhato paribāhiro.


Ñ: He is as hard to purify as a cesspit many years old. He is like a log from a pyre (see Iti. 99); for he is outside both [recluseship and the lay state].

Sayādaw U Sīlānanda: [Iti. 99 => Iti. 90].

Han: Han: The numberings can be different. This Iti is 91 in my books. It is also 91 in the translation by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.

§ 91. {Iti 3.42; Iti 89}

This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "This is a lowly means of livelihood, alms gathering. It's a form of abuse in the world [to say], 'You go around as an alms gatherer with a bowl in your hand!' Yet sensible young men of good families have taken it up for a compelling reason. They have not been forced into it by kings or robbers, nor through debt, through fear, nor through the loss of their livelihood, but through the thought: 'We are beset by birth, aging, & death, by sorrows, lamentations, pains, distresses, & despairs, beset by stress, overcome with stress. O, that the end of this entire mass of suffering & stress might be known!' But this young man of good family, having gone forth in this way, may be greedy for sensual pleasures, strong in his passions, malevolent in mind, corrupt in his resolves, his mindfulness muddled, unalert, uncentered, his mind scattered, & his faculties uncontrolled. Just as a firebrand

from a funeral pyre — burning at both ends, covered with excrement in the middle — is used as fuel neither in a village nor in the wilderness: I tell you that this is a simile for this person. He has missed out on the householder's enjoyments and does not fulfill the purpose of the contemplative life."

Bhikkhubhāvaṃ paṭijānantopi abhikkhuyeva gogaṇaṃ anubandhagadrabho viya. Satatubbiggo sabbaverikapuriso viya. Asaṃvāsāraho matakaḷevaraṃ viya.


Ñ: Though claiming the bhikkhu state he is no bhikkhu, so he is like a donkey following a herd of cattle. He is always nervous, like a man who is everyone's enemy. He is as unfit to live with as a dead carcase.

Sutādiguṇayuttopi sabrahmacārīnaṃ apūjāraho susānaggi viya brāhmaṇānaṃ.


Ñ: Though he may have the qualities of learning, etc., he is as unfit for the homage of his fellows in the life of purity as a charnel-ground fire is for that of brahmans.

Abhabbo visesādhigame andho viya rūpadassane.


Ñ: He is as incapable of reaching the distinction of attainment as a blind man is of seeing a visible object.

Nirāso saddhamme caṇḍālakumārako viya rajje.


Ñ: He is as careless of the Good Law as a guttersnipe[ˈɡʌtəsnaip] is of a kingdom.


nirāsa: [adj.] desireless.

saddhamma: [m.] the true doctrine.

caṇḍāla: [m.] an outcaste or untouchable.

viya: [a particle of comparison] like; as.

rajja: [nt.] kingdom; kingship.

Han: Ñ translation is not good enough. It should be:

Like an outcaste will not desire for kingdom or kingship, the unvirtuous person will not desire saddhamma.

Chew: The Chinese translation as: "Also hopeless in the Dhamma. As Caṇḍāla's boy hopeless on the kingdom."

Sukhitosmīti maññamānopi dukkhitova aggikkhandhapariyāye vuttadukkhabhāgitāya.


Ñ: Though he fancies he is happy, yet he suffers because he reaps suffering as told in the Discourse on the Mass of Fire (A.iv,128-34).

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Acknowledgment: Thanks to Buddhist Publication Society (BPS) and Venerable Nyanatusita for allowing me to use the English translation of the Visuddhimagga (The Path Of Purification) by Bhadantācariya Buddhaghosa, translated from the Pāḷi by Bhikkhu Ñāṇamoli, as part of a combined Chinese English translation.

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